The Causality between Human Capital, Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

Abdul, Bashir and Kemas, Muhammad Husni Thamrin and Muhammad, Farhan and Mukhlis, Mukhlis and Dirta Pratama, Atiyatna (2019) The Causality between Human Capital, Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 9 (2). pp. 98-104. ISSN 2146-4553

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Abstract

This study to investigate the causality between human capital, energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Indonesia. The data used world development indicator has obtained from the World Bank database during 1985-2017. The analysis method used vector error correction model. The finding of this study, first, there is the validity of long-run balance causality exists only for the model of human capital nor energy consumption; second, neither CO2 emissions per capita nor real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita cause human capital in the long-run causality nor short-run; Third, there is no causal evidence from the human capital, CO2 emission per capita, and real GDP per capita to consumption energy per capita, but in the short-run, there is causal evidence between CO2 emission and energy consumption; fourth, there is no causal evidence from the human capital, consumption energy per capita, and real GDP per capita toward CO2 emission per capita, but human capital, consumption energy, and economic growth cause CO2 emission in the short-run; and the last finding, there is no causal evidence from the human capital, consumption energy per capita, and CO2 emission per capita to real GDP per capita, neither in the long-run causality and short-run.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory > HB201-206 Value. Utility
H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions > HC79 Special topics Including air pollution, automation, consumer demand, famines, flow of funds, etc.
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD2321-4730.9 Industry
Divisions: 01-Faculty of Economics > 60201-Development Economics (S1)
Depositing User: Dr. Mukhlis Mukhlis
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2021 03:07
Last Modified: 10 Sep 2021 03:07
URI: http://repository.unsri.ac.id/id/eprint/53228

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