PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI KARBON KONDUKTIF DARI SERAT SABUT KELAPA DAN KOMPOSITNYA UNTUK ELEKTRODA FUEL CELL

FAUZI, NANANG and Bama, Akhmad Aminuddin and Indayaningsih, Nanik (2021) PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI KARBON KONDUKTIF DARI SERAT SABUT KELAPA DAN KOMPOSITNYA UNTUK ELEKTRODA FUEL CELL. Undergraduate thesis, Sriwijaya University.

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Limbah perkebunan berupa serat sabut kelapa dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan karbon yang bernilai guna lebih tinggi. Pada penelitian ini dibahas tentang proses pembuatan dan karakterisasi serbuk karbon dan lembaran komposit karbon dengan memanfaatkan serat sabut kelapa sebagai bahan dasarnya. Lembaran komposit karbon yang dihasilkan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) PEMFC. Pembuatan serbuk karbon konduktif pada penelitian ini berbasis serat sabut kelapa telah berhasil diproduksi dengan proses tiga langkah berikut ini, yaitu: (i) karbonisasi, (ii) aktivasi kimia, dan (iii) aktiviasi fisika. Karbonisasi dilakukan dalam lingkungan inert gas N2 pada temperatur 500oC selama 2 jam, aktivasi kimia dilakukan dengan perendaman menggunakan katalis Besi (III) Klorida dengan konsentrasi 0,4 M, dan selanjutnya oleh aktivasi fisika pada variasi temperatur yaitu: 800oC, 850oC, 900oC, 950oC, 1000oC, 1050oC, dan 1100oC menggunakan inert gas N2 masing-masing selama 2 jam dengan kecepatan kenaikan suhu 10oC/menit. Pencucian dilakukan melalui perendaman menggunakan HCl 2 M selama 24 jam, tiap ½ jam diaduk agar lebih efektif, kemudian karbon tersebut dicuci dengan aquades sampai mencapai pH netral, lalu ditiriskan, untuk dikeringkan didalam oven dengan suhu 60oC. Karbon konduktif diuji konduktivitasnya dengan tiga variasi kekuatan torsi yaitu 10, 20 & 30 kgf.cm. Pembuatan lembaran komposit karbon dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan bahan dasar karbon yang dihasilkan dengan polimer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) dan poly ethylene glycol (PEG) sebagai binder dan dispersant ke dalam larutan xylene. Proses pencampuran dilakukan pada suhu 90oC hingga membentuk slurry, dilanjutkan dengan proses percetakan pada cetakan kaca, membentuk lembaran dan dikeringkan. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian konduktivitas listrik terlihat bahwa nilai konduktivitas listrik serbuk karbon serat sabut kelapa meningkat seiring dengan pertambahan suhu pirolisis. Konduktivitas listrik serbuk karbon serat sabut kelapa yang terbesar terdapat pada sampel C kat 0,4 M Fe 1100oC dengan kekuatan torsi 30 kgf.cm memiliki nilai rata-rata 11,986 S/cm dan yang terkecil pada sampel C kat 0,4 M Fe 800oC dengan beban torsi 10 kgf.cm memiliki nilai rata-rata 0,634 S/cm. Penggunaan bahan polimer yang tidak konduktif menyebabkan lembaran komposit karbon yang dihasilkan memiliki nilai konduktivitas listrik yang lebih rendah dibandingkan bahan karbonnya. Nilai konduktivitas litrik lembaran karbon tanpa lapisan polimer hidrofobik, terbesar terdapat pada sampel PCN 1050oC dengan nilai rata-rata 18,359 S/cm dan nilai terkecil terdapat pada sampel PCN 950oC dengan nilai rata-rata 4,631 S/cm. Sedangkan untuk konduktivitas listrik lembaran karbon dengan lapisan polimer hidrofobik, secara keseluruhan turun karena pengaruh lapisan hidrofobik yang merupakan bahan isolator, yang nilai terbesar didapat pada sampel PCN+P 950oC dengan nilai rata-rata 8,552 S/cm dan yang terkecil terdapat pada sampel PCN+P 1100oC dengan nilai rata-rata 1,149 S/cm. Kata Kunci: Serat sabut kelapa, karbon konduktif, kertas karbon, Gas Diffusion Layer MANUFACTURE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDUCTIVE CARBON FROM COCONUT FIBER AND ITS COMPOSITES FOR FUEL CELL ELECTRODES NANANG FAUZI Department of Physics Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science University of Sriwijaya Jl. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih KM 32 Indralaya, Ogan Ilir ABSTRACT Plantation waste in the form of coco fiber can be used as a carbon material with higher use value. This study discusses the manufacturing process and characterization of carbon powder and carbon composite sheets using coconut fiber as the basic material. The resulting carbon composite sheet can be applied as a Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) PEMFC. The manufacture of conductive carbon powder in this study based on coconut fiber has been successfully produced by the following three-step process, namely: (i) carbonization, (ii) chemical activation, and (iii) physical activation. Carbonization was carried out in an inert gas N2 environment at a temperature of 500oC for 2 hours, chemical activation was carried out by immersion using an iron (III) chloride catalyst with a concentration of 0.4 M, and then by physical activation at various temperatures, namely: 800oC, 850oC, 900oC, 950oC , 1000oC, 1050oC, and 1100oC using inert gas N2 for 2 hours each with a temperature rise rate of 10oC/minute. The washing was carried out through immersion using 2 M HCl for 24 hours, stirring every hour to make it more effective, then the carbon was washed with distilled water until it reached a neutral pH, then drained, to be dried in an oven at 60oC. Conductive carbon was tested for its conductivity with three variations of torsional strength, namely 10, 20 & 30 kgf.cm. The manufacture of carbon is done by mixing the resulting carbon base material with polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as a binder and dispersant into a xylene solution. The mixing process is carried out at a temperature of 90oC to form a slurry, followed by a printing process on a glass mold, forming a sheet and drying. Based on the results of electrical conductivity testing, it can be seen that the value of the electrical conductivity of coconut fiber carbon powder increases with the increase in the pyrolysis temperature. The highest electrical conductivity of coconut fiber carbon powder was found in sample C at 0.4 M Fe 1100oC with a torsional strength of 30 kgf.cm having an average value of 11.986 S/cm and the smallest in sample C at 0.4 M Fe 800oC with Torque load of 10 kgf.cm has an average value of 0.634 S/cm. The use of non-conductive polymer materials causes the resulting carbon composite sheet to have a lower electrical conductivity value than the carbon material. The value of the electrical conductivity of carbon sheets without a hydrophobic polymer coating was the largest in the PCN 1050oC sample with an average value of 18.359 S/cm and the smallest value was found in the PCN 950oC sample with an average value of 4.631 S/cm. As for the electrical conductivity of carbon sheets with a hydrophobic polymer layer, overall decreased due to the influence of the hydrophobic layer which is an insulating material, the largest value was obtained in the sample of PCN+P 950oC with an average value of 8,552 S/cm and the smallest was found in the sample PCN+P 1100oC with an average value of 1,149 S/cm. Keywords: Coir fiber, conductive carbon, carbon paper, Gas Diffusion Layer

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Serat sabut kelapa, karbon konduktif, kertas karbon, Gas Diffusion Layer
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General) > Q1-295 General
Q Science > QC Physics > QC1-75 General
T Technology > T Technology (General) > T1-995 Technology (General)
Divisions: 08-Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science > 45201-Physics (S1)
Depositing User: Nanang Fauzi
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2021 07:15
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2021 07:15
URI: http://repository.unsri.ac.id/id/eprint/54435

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